- Nelson Mandela's Fight for Freedom
- Freedom of the Will and the Concept of the Person
- Elimination of the Fourth Ammendment: Freedom and Privacy
- Freedom Fighters of India
- Role of Press in Indian Freedom Struggle
- Freedom of the Press Versus Right to Privacy
- The Ultimate Weight Solution: The Seven Keys to Weightloss Freedom by Dr. Phil
- Freedom in Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
- The Freedom to the Choice of Abortion
- The United States and the Ideals of Freedom
- Illustrating Freedom and Responsibility as an Opposing Dichotomy in Kate Chopin's "The Awakening"
- Compare Theodore Roosevelt's 'Square Deal' with Woodrow Wilson's 'New Freedom.' Who was more of a progressive?
- The Taliban: Afghanistan´s Freedom Fighters
- The Difference in Thoughts on Freedom of the Grand Inquisitor and Existentialists
- Freedom Writers Analysis Paper
- The United States Military Protects Our Freedom: More Men and Women Volunteers Are Need for the Military.
- Freedom Writers by Erin Gruwell
- The Great Concept of American Freedom
- Exploring the Idea of Freedom of Speech in American Media
- Search For Freedom in The Yellow Wallpaper
- Freedom vs. Gun Control
- Religious Freedom in the Workplace
- Georgina’s Struggle for Freedom in The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and her Lover
- Jean-Paul Sartre’s Philosophy: Radical Freedom and Responsibility
- March to Freedom: Edith Singer
- Separation of Church and State is Necessary for Freedom of Choice
- The American Revolution And Women's Freedom
- A Separation of Church and State Ensures our Individual Freedoms
- Iran Provides No Freedom of Speech on the Internet
- Your Freedom Is Not Free
- Freedom Of Expression - Our First Amendment Rights Are Threatened
- Internet Censorship Means No Freedom of Speech
- Freedom in Dostoevsky's Notes from Underground
- Freedom Of Expression
- From Bondage to Freedom
- Choosing Freedom over Equality
- Internet Censorship: Censoring Freedom
- Is Falling Failure or Freedom?
- The Statue of Liberty Lending Credence to the Word Freedom in America
- My Bondage and my Freedom
- Artificial Wombs Will Spawn New Freedoms
- The March to Real Freedom
- The Theme of Freedom in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
- Freedom Under Hospitable Captivity
- Testamentary Freedom and Validity of Wills
- The US Constitution as an Inspiration to the Declaration of Freedom in Kosovo
- Long Walk to Freedom by Nelson Mandela Book Review
- Essay on Freedom and Satan in John Milton’s Paradise Lost
- The Doukhobors, Sons of Freedom and the Canadian Government
- The Appropriate Use of Freedom of Speech
- Freedom iin Kate Chopin's The Awakening
- Regulating Food Advertising and Freedom of Speech
- Freedom of Religion: THe Maryland Toleration Act
- Rights and Freedoms of Aboriginals
- Ensuring Freedom
- Film Review - Freedom Writers
- Rights, Duties and Freedoms
- Mandating Seat Belt Usage vs. Freedom of Choice
- Abortion: A Freedom of Choice
- Limitations that Freedom of Speech Should Have
- Sarty Snopes’ Struggle for Freedom: William Faulkner's Barn Burning
- Helping the Poor Whites in the Book, American Slavery, American Freedom by Edmund S. Morgan
- Operation Iraqi Freedom
- Voices of Freedom Chapter 1-4
- Freedom and Morality in Kant's Ethics
- Freedom in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain
- Leadership: Equality, Justice, Truth, and Freedom
- Freedom for Rousseau and Individual Liberties
- Brave New World and Individual Freedom
- Freedom of Self- Expression: Tattoos and Body Piercings at 16 Should be Permitted
- Between Our Freedom is a Bloody Nose
- Obedience: The Odyssey to Freedom
- Martin Luther King's Speech in Jobs and Freedom
- Saint Augustine: His concept of Freedom
- Balancing Individual Privacy with Press Freedom
- Formula for Freedom
- Freedom of Speech: The Engel Vs Vitale Case
- The Struggle for Freedom in Yellow Wallpaper and Story of an Hour
- True Freedom in Lawrence's Aaron’s Rod
- The Freedom of the Forest in The Scarlet Letter
- The Drawbacks of Freedom
- Persepolis: Captivity V. Freedom
- John Locke and John Stuart Mill's Definition of Freedom
- Lack of Freedom Of Speech in Sudan
- Freedom Writers: Rhetorical Analysis Essay
- American Freedom - No Greater Gift
- No Freedom for Women in Ancient Rome
The ethics of animal research
Animal use has been a hotly contested moral issue for hundreds of years. In the 17th century René Descartes, a French philosopher, argued that animals were no more than automata and could not feel pain. This was rejected by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th Century who extended his utilitarian conception of rights to animals due to their capability to suffer. This was expanded by Peter Singer, in 1975, who wrote in Animal Liberation that arbitrarily treating humans above animals – particularly in marginal cases where animals may be as intelligent as young children or severely cognitively-impaired adults – was not justified.
Animal rights philosophy is distinct from proponents of animal welfare who argue that we must provide adequate conditions for animals in our care – a position held by the RSPCA among others. The scientific community has often been the driving force for these improvements, arguing that better conditions for animals was conducive to better, more replicable, scientific results.
Animal Liberation (Peter Singer) was an immensely influential book which discussed the ethics of animal use (including animal research). It is often considered the forerunner to the animal liberation movement. This is, perhaps, the core piece of literature on animal rights philosophy.
- Singer, P., 1995. Animal Liberation. 2nd Ed. London: Pimlico.
Do Animals Have Rights? (Alison Hills) is an objective assessment of the case for whether animals should have rights and what rights those should be. Hills discusses their ability of mind, whether all animals should be regarded as equal, and what that means. Hills concludes with a graded scale of animals rights.
- Hills, A., 2005. Do Animals Have Rights? Cambridge: Icon Books.
The Case for Animal Rights (Tom Reagan) is another major piece of philosophical writing which argues for animal rights on the basis of their similar cognitive abilities.
- Reagan, T., 1983. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press.
A Rat is a Pig is a Dog is a Boy (Wesley J Smith) takes its title from a quote from PETA president, Ingrid Newkirk. It is a useful book covering many issues of animal rights activism and philosophy. In Chapter 18, Smith creates his argument in favour of animal research on the basis of human rights and duties.
- Smith, W.J., 2009. A rat is a pig is a dog is a boy. New York: Encounter Books.
The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice (Beauchamp et al.) investigates a number of difficult issues regarding the use of animals in society. Through 16 case studies, and plenty of ethical theory, the authors attempt to navigate the moral minefields involved.
- Beauchamp, T.L., Orlans, F.B., & Dresser, R. Morton D. and Gluck J. 2008. The Human Use of Animals: Case Studies in Ethical Choice. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
An Odyssey with Animals (Adrian Morrison) investigates the relationship between humans and animals, and explains why efforts to halt animal research would be damaging to human health.
- Morrison, A., 2009. An Odyssey with Animals. New York: Oxford University Press
Ethics (Pro-Test) looks at the question of whether animals have rights, concluding that their lack of understanding does not allow them to participate in the system of rights and duties.
- Pro-Test. Ethics. [online]Available at: http://pro-test.org.uk/facts.php?lt=a
The ethics of research involving animals (Nuffield Council on Bioethics) is an independent report on the use of animals for medical science. Although it looks at the whole issue, it pays particular attention to the ethics, specifically in chapter three.
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 2006. The ethics of research involving animals. [online] London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics. Available at:
Animal Rights Beliefs (SR) provides a polemic disagreeing with Bentham’s basis of animal rights. It also investigates the question of whether animals should be considered “innocent”.
- Speaking of Research. Animal Rights Beliefs. [online] Available at: http://speakingofresearch.com/extremism-undone/ar-beliefs/
The Ethics of Animal Research (Simon Festing and Robin Wilkinson) provides an insight into the ethics of animal research, including a look at public opinion and the animal welfare regulations. It also has a useful and extensive references list.
- Festing S. and Wilkinson R., 2007. The Ethics of Animal Research. EMBO reports. [online] Available at:
The moral relevance of human intelligence (Dario Ringach) – this blog post by Prof. Ringach discusses the arguments made by animal rights activists about marginal cases – how do we compare the moral value of a baby, or brain damaged person to a mouse or monkey.
- Ringach, D., 2012. The moral relevance of human intelligence. Speaking of Research. [blog] 12 Sept, Available at: http://speakingofresearch.com/2012/09/12/the-moral-relevance-of-human-intelligence/
Click on one of the links below to see other topics on animal research
Last edited: 12 July 2017 11:43
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